Basilica of St.John in Lateran
The Basilica of St.John in Lateran in Rome is located on the southern part of the Celio Hill, on the properties that during the imperial era were belonging to the family of the Laterani and to whom they were taken away by Nerone after that, during a conspiracy, the consul Plauzio Laterano had attempted to his life.
After some minor interventions of the emperors Marco Aurelio
and Settimio Severo, around 313 after Christ was built in this area, on the
order of Constantine, a basilica with five apses dedicated to Christ Saver.
Given as a gift to the Pontiff, the basilica of St.John in Lateran, after
being the headquarters of the first council of Melchiade against the
Donatisti, faced the destructions of Alarico and of the Vandals of Genserico.
Since 440 after Christ the structure has seen numerous restorations and
interventions, works of Leone Magno, Ilario, Adriano I and Sergio II;
however, because of the earthquake of 896 after Christ, the church was
almost completely destroyed.
· The ceiling of the school of Michelangelo dating back to around 1562 after Christ
· The pavement with mosaics of Vassalletto from the 13th century
· The papal altar with tabernacle under the triumphal arch, also form the 13th century
· The reliquaries, work of Valadier, in substitution to those lost during the French occupation of Rome in 1799, containing the skulls of San Pietro and San Paolo.
· The mosaics of Jacopo Torriti and Jacopo da Camerino and the "chair" of the Bishop of Rome in the apse.
· The cloister with the spiral pillars recovered by mosaics of Vassalletto nowadays unfortunately gone lost.
Still nowadays the complex of St. John in Lateran is considered the church "Caput et mater omnium ecclesiarum Urbis et Orbis" so that, there, ended with the "Lateranensi Pacts" of 1929 the drags between the Holy See and the Italian State concerning the possess of some goods from the part of the Pontiff, and it is also there that Pope Giovanni Paolo II wanted to contribute to the furnishing of the basilica with a painting of the Black Madonna of Czestochowa, nowadays hosted in the Massimo chapel.